(s)ter-1, (s)terǝ- : (s)trē-

(s)ter-1, (s)terǝ- : (s)trē-
    (s)ter-1, (s)terǝ- : (s)trē-
    English meaning: stiff, immovable; solid, etc..
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘starr, steif sein, starrer, fester Ghegenstand, especially Pflanzenstamm or -stengel; steif gehen, stolpern, fallen, stolzieren”
    Note: s. also ster- “unfruchtbar” and ster- ‘steifer Pflanzenschaft”, further treg- “alle Kräfte anstrengen”, strenk- ‘straff”
    Material: A. Gk. στερεός (Att. also στερρός from *στερεός) ‘starr, tight, firm, hard”, στέριφος ds. (also “unfruchtbar”, s. ster-6 “unfruchtbar”), στερέμνιος ds.; στεῖρα “Kielbalken”, lengthened grade: στῆρα τὰ λίθινα πρόθυρα Hes., στηρίζω (Fut. -ξω) “tight, firm prop, support, stemmen”, Med. pass. ‘sich prop, support, sich feststemmen”, στῆριγξ, -γγος “pad”, wherefore σκηρίπτω ‘stũtze”, Med. ‘stũtze mich, stemme mich”, dissimil. from *στηρίπτω; στρηνής, στρηνός “ hard, sharp, forceful “, στρῆνος n. “heftiges desire, power, Übermut”, στρηνιᾶν “minxish, wanton sein”, στρηνύζω “cry rauh” (in formant. Bez. to Lat. strēnuus??), Lat. strēnuus “voll rũstiger Tatkraft, betriebsam, wacker”; Alb. shterr (*ster-n-) “lay, place dry, macheversiegen”; about strēnü “good omen, sign” s. WH. II 601; Lat. consternō , -üre, also exsternō “bestũrzen, from the Fassung bringen”, sternüx ‘shy, störrisch”; Welsh trin “toil, fight, struggle” (*strēnü?); Gmc. *stara- ‘starr, esp. of eye” in mnl. star m. ‘starrheit of Auges”, O.H.G. stara-blint, O.E. stær(e)blind ‘starblind”, O.Ice. stara, O.E. starian, O.H.G. starēn “ stare, stare”; with-rr- (from -rn-) O.Ice. stǫrr f. “Carex” (eig. “die Steife”), starr (acc. starran) “ stiff, starr, hard”, Ger. starr, M.H.G. sterre, Ger. bO.Ir. sterr ‘starr, stiff “, whereof M.H.G. starren, sterren ‘starr sein or become”, Ger. erstarren, starren, Nor. stara and sterra (*starrian) ‘sichsträuben, sich anstrengen”; *sturra- (*sturna-) ‘sich steif aufrichtend, stemmend” in Goth. and-staúrran “ uncourageous sein”, O.H.G. stōrren ‘steif herausstehen, hervorragen”, O.H.G. storro “ stump, clot, chunk”, Ger. störrig, störrisch; O.E. stierne “ernst, hard, stern”, O.H.G. stornēn ‘stutzen, frighten” (*’stiff, starr vor Schrecken”), sturni ‘stupor”, Swe. sturna ‘stutzen”; O.Ice. stirðr “ stiff, unbeugsam, hard, unfreundlich”; O.Pruss. stūrnawiskan instr. sg. “ seriousness “, stūrnawingisku adv. “ernstlich”, stūrni-tickrōms “keen, eager”; Lith. starinù, -ìnti “ stiff make”; Russ. starátьsja ‘sich abmũhen”; with ablaut *strō- (to στρη-νής, strē-nuus) and Dentalformans: O.C.S. strada “hard work, toil”, stradati “leiden”; in addition O.C.S. strastь “affliction” (*strad-tь), Ltv.struôstêt “bedrohen”; with formants -mo- presumably O.C.S. strьmo ‘steil, abschũssig”, ablaut. Pol.stromy ds. (Trautmann 290, Vasmer 3, 25). 1. guttural extensions: (s)ter-g- and (s)tre-g-: O.Ice. participle storkinn “geronnen, solidified “; Goth. ga-staúrknan “erstarren”, O.Ice. storkna “ curdle, coagulate, harden “, O.H.G. ki-, er-storchanēn “erstarren, erkalten”; Ger. tirol. stork “knag, stump eines Baumes”, bO.Ir. stork “Fischerstange”, M.H.G. storch “penis”; also (of steifen Gange) O.Ice.storkr, O.E. storc, O.H.G. stork, storah(h) “ stork “; (if in addition Gk. τόργος “ vulture”, eig. “ stiff = big, large”?), compare tirol. storke(l)n “with langen Beinen einherschreiten”, thũring. storchen “as ein stork go”, Westfäl. storkeln ‘straucheln, stumble”; adj. *starku- in O.E. stearc “ stiff, stern, strong”, O.H.G. starc, starah ‘strong, big, large”, O.Ice. sterkr, O.S. starker ‘strong”, zero grade O.Ice. styrkr (*sturki-) m. “ strength “; strak (- ck-) “ stiff, straff, gerade emporgerichtet; störrig”, M.H.G. strac (-ck-) ‘straff, gestreckt, straight”: O.E. strec, stræc (strǣ k?) ‘starr, tight, firm, stern, violent”; Denom. (or umgekehrt strak post-verbal?) O.H.G. stracchēn “ausgestreckt sein” and strecchan, strecken “ausstrecken, straight make”, O.E. streccan “ausstrecken”; compare still treg- “die Kräfte anstrengen”; Ltv. terglis “eigensinniger, störrischer person”, terglüties ‘sich auf etwas versteifen”; Lith. stre ́gti “erstarren, to ice become”; doubtful, if in addition O.Bulg. strachъ “fright” as *strōgso-, compare Vasmer 3, 23; perhaps based on auf (s)terg-: Lat. tergus, -oris “hard Rũckenhaut the animal, fell, fur, back” (probably from dem am back am stärksten gesträubten hair), tergum “ds., esp. back”, tergīnum “Peitsche from leather”; here perhaps as nasalized form strenk-, streng-, see there. (s)ter-k-: Clr. storčá ty, storčity “ragen, stare “, torčá ti, torčity ds., Cz. strčeti, trčeti ds. 2. Dental extensions: (s)tert-, more properly *ster-to- in Welsh serth ‘steil, obszön”, O.Ice. stirðr “ stiff “ (see above) and storð “grass, grũner Stengel”; (s)terd-: O.Ice. stertr “tail”, O.E. steort, O.H.G. sterz ds., M.H.G. also ‘stengel, Stiel” (as Eng. start), Ger. Sterz; ablaut. Nor. dial. start ‘steifer twig, branch, dull”, M.H.G. stũrzel ‘stengel”; O.Ice. upp stertr “hochmũtig”, O.Ice. sterta ‘spannen”, M.H.G. sterzen (also st. Verb.) ‘steif emporragen, sich rasch bewegen”, trans. (also starzen) ‘starr aufwärtsrichten”, M.Eng. sterten “auffahren, frighten”, Eng. start; O.Ice. stirtla “uplift, set up”, O.E. steartlian ‘stumble”, Eng. startle “vor Schreck auffahren”; WestGmc. *sturtjan, ahd sturzen, M.H.G. stũrzen, M.L.G. storten “fall, diffuse, bestũrzt make”, O.Fris. stirta “umstoßen”; M.H.G. storzen ‘strotzen”; without anlaut. s: Nor. tart (and start) ‘steißbein”, turt ‘sonchus alpinus” (tfrom O.N. Þ-), compare Gk. τόρδυλον “eine Doldenpflanze”; Welsh tarddu “to break out, spring, issue”; (s)terǝ-d-: Welsh tardd m. “eruption, issue, flow”, Corn. tardh “Anbruch (of Tages)”, Bret. tarz “rupture, éclat”, tarz-ann-deiz “daybreak” (*tr̥̄d-); with similar meaning as Ger. Sterz, Nor. (s)tart, here: Lith. tursóti “with ausgestrecktem Hintern dastehen”, turse ́ti “den Hintern hinausstrecken” (turs- from *tort-s-) and O.Ir. tarr “belly” (*tortso-); identical seems Ir. torrach “pregnant”, Welsh torrog ds., Corn. tor, O.Bret. tar, Bret. tor, teur, Welsh tor(r) “belly, lower abdomen”. (s)terdh-: Gk. στόρθη Hes., στόρθυγξ “cusp, peak”; possibly here Welsh tardd see above; eine nasal. root *strend- in Gmc., e.g. M.H.G. strunz ‘stump, Lanzensplitter, coarse Bengel”, Eng. dial. to strunt “ stiff, gespreizt umhergehen” etc. 3. Labial extensions: (s)terp-: Lat. stirps ‘stem eines Baumes (ũbertr. progeny, origin, source, beginning; an ancestor)”; Lith. stir̃pti ‘somewhat emporkommen, heranwachsen” (eig. “*sich straffen”), ster̃ptis “auf seinem Rechte bestehen” (‘sich versteifen”), stùrplis “rump of Pferdes”; Alb. shterpë “unfruchtbar” (compare also 6. ster- “unfruchtbar”); Ir. serrach “Fũllen” (from den langen Beinen); without s-: torpeō, -ēre ‘starr, insensible, betäubt sein” (= O.Bulg. u-trъpěti or = Russ. toropétь); Lith. tir̃pti “erstarren, insensible become”, Ltv. tìrpt ds.; Serb.-Church Slavic utrъpěti “erstarren”, Russ. térpnutь “ds., also vor fear”, R.C.S. terpkij “αὐστηρός”, r. térpkij “herb, sour”; Russ. toropétь, otoropétь “bestũrzt become” (Trautmann Bal.-Slav. Wb. 325), Clr. torópa “unbeweglicher person”, Slov. tràp “Dummkopf”; auf the Bedeut. ‘starr, stiff = persistent sein” based on probably O.C.S. trъpěti “leiden”, Russ. terpétь ds.; Proto-Slav.. *torpiti (Kaus.) in Cz. trápiti, O.Pol. tropić “torment, smite”, Russ. toropítь “antreiben”; as ‘starr, dull, vomStandpunkte of Geschmacks”: O.C.S. *trъръkъ “acerbus, asper”, Russ. térpkij “herb, sour”, as Pers.turuš ‘sour” (if from *tr̥fša-) and Ger. derb (see under). Teils auf (s)terp-, partly auf (s)terbh- can go back: O.Ice. Þiarfr, O.E. ðeorf, O.S. thervi, O.H.G. derbi “ unleavened “, Ger. bO.Ir. derb “arid, dry, lean “; with anlaut. s-: O.Ice. stjarfi m. “work, toil”, stjarfr “hartmäulig (from horses)”, stirfinn “halsstarrig”, starf n. “work, Streben, Amt”, starfa ‘sich abmũhen”; O.H.G. sterban “die” (“*erstarren”; see under M.Ir. ussarb); O.S. sterƀan, O.Fris. sterva, O.E. steorfan ds. (Eng. starve “ perish, esp. vor hunger”); O.H.G. sterbo, O.E. steorfa “Pest”; Ger.-tirol. storfn “ stalk, stem of a plant, stump “, Westfäl. storpeln ‘straucheln” can auf a root form auf b based on. strep-: Lith. par-strapìnti “heimtorkeln”, strỹpti “trample”, stripinỹs, stráipis “Leitersprosse”; LateM.H.G. straf (-ff-) ‘straff, strenge”, wFlem. strüf (*strēpo-) ‘strong, stern”, E.Fris. strabben ‘sich widerspenstig gebärden”, M.H.G. strabbeln “ wriggle “; Swiss strapfen ‘straff ziehen” (*strappōn); probably as ‘stern behandeln” here: O.Fris. straffia “bestreiten, scold, chide”, mnl. M.L.G. straffen, from which borrowed M.H.G. strüfen, ds. “punish, curse”, strüfe ‘schelte, reprimand, punishment “. sterbh-, strebh-: Gk. στέρφνιον σκληρόν, στερεόν Hes. (compare also στέριφoς, στριφνός under under streibh-), στέρφος, τέρφος, Dor. στρέφος “Rũckenhaut the animal, fell, fur, leather”; M.Ir. ussarb “death” (*uks-sterbhü ); Welsh serfyll “ frail “ (Loth RC. 43, 147); M.Ir. srebann m. ‘skin”; O.C.S. u-strabiti “recreüre”, Pol. postrobić ‘stärken” (Proto-Slav.. *storbiti); ablaut. aRuss. u-strebe Aor. “wurde reif”, Church Slavic strъblъ “fit, healthy, tight, firm”, Russ. stérbnutь “erstarren, absterben”, etc. (Trautmann 284 f., Vasmer 3, 11 f.); whether Gk. groups from στρεβλός “ twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved “, στρέφειν “turn”, ablaut. στραβός “verdreht”, στράβων “ squinting”, στροβέω “ turn, twist, rotate herum”, στροφή “ turn “ etc. from a meaning ‘straff zusammenziehen” (see under Ger. bestremmen this meaning) expounded become dũrfen, is höchst dubious; rather to a distinctive root streb-, strebh- “turn, winden”. stremb-, stremp-: M.L.G. strampe(le)n “with den Fũßen heftig auftreten”, Ger. (eigent. nd.) strampeln, M.L.G. strumpe(le)n ‘straucheln, anstoßen” under likewise; M.H.G. strumpf, M.L.G. strump ‘strumpf, Stummel” (Ger. “gestutzte britches, Strumpf”), Nor. dial. strump ‘small Holzschũssel under likewise” (“*ausgehöhlter tree truck”, also stropp “ein Maß”); Nor. dial. stremba “anspannen; brost or stomach aufblähen”, Ice. strembinn ‘straff, hard, stout, proud”, Nor. dial. stramb ‘scharfer smell, odor”; with -mm-: M.L.G. stram (-mm-) ‘straff, strong, thickset, strong” (Ger. stramm from dem Nd.), Ger. bO.Ir. bestremmen, bestrempen “pull together, make narrow, limit, restrict”; O.Pruss. strambo ‘stoppel”, Ltv. strìebs and struobs (*strambas) “Halm, reed”, strumbulis “cudgel, club”; Lith. stram̃pas “cudgel, club”, strampalióti “wankend (*stiff) go”; Ltv. strampul(i)s “ stalk, stem of a plant, small bit of wood; hartgefrorener ordure”. B. strē̆ i-, steri-: O.E. strīmendi “resisting, striving” GlO.S.S.; Eng. dial. to strime = to stride; Lith. strainùs ‘strebsam, widerspenstig”, pasistraĩnyti ‘strive, sich feststemmen”. 1. With guttural extension: s. streig- “ stiff “. 2. With Dental extensions: with IE -dh-: O.E. strīdan st. V. ‘schreiten”, Eng. to stride, M.L.G. strīden “die Beine spreizen, weit ausschreiten” (about Lat. strittabellae “Buhldirnen” s. WH. II 605 f.); O.H.G. strītan st V. “quarrel, sich bemũhen”, schw. V. O.Ice. strīða “quarrel, torment, smite”, O.E. strīdian “quarrel”; O.Ice. strīð “fight, plague, care, austereness, severeness “, O.S. strīd “toil, fight, struggle”, O.H.G. strīt “fight”, einstrīti “hartnäckig”; O.Ice. strīðr “ stiff, hard, stern, strong”; with IE -d-: O.Ice. strita ‘strive, sich anstrengen”, streita ds.; without anlaut. s-: O.S. Þrēsker “widerspenstig”, Nor. dial. treisk “defiant, beschwerlich, mũhsam”. 3. With bh-Erweit.: Gk. στέριφος ‘starr, hard, tight, firm, unfruchtbar”, subst. “Kielbalken” (as στεῖρα), στριφνός “hard, tight, firm” (compare above στέρφνιον, στέρφος); M.L.G. nnd. strif, stref “ stiff, tight, firm”, streven “ stiff sein, sich strecken”, M.H.G. streben ‘sich uplift, set up, sich strecken, ragen”, Ger. streben, Strebe-balken, -pfeiler; ablaut. md. strīben st. V., nld. strijven ‘strive, quarrel”. C. strē̆ u-: 1. With guttural extensions: Dutch struik, M.L.G. strūk, M.H.G. strūch, Ger. Strauch; M.H.G. strūch ‘struppig”; Mod.Ice. striūgr “Gericht from geronnener milk”, strūga “rough, struppig make”, O.Ice. strūgr “ repulsion, pride, hauteur”, M.Eng. nEng. to struggle ‘sich abmũhen, fight”; Ltv. strūkuls “icicle”, also O.Lith. strungas, Lith. strùgas, striùgas, strùkas ‘short, truncated, chopped down, cut down, cut off”. 2. With Dental extensions: Lith. strustìs f. “Baststreifen in Siebe”; without anlaut. s-: Proto-Slav.. *trъstь in O.C.S. trъstь “reed”; Gk. θρυόν n. “ bulrush” (*trusom); Lith. trùšiai m. pl. “reed”, trušì s, triušì s f. “reed”, Ltv. trusis “ bulrush, reed”, O.C.S. trъsa, trъsina ‘stiff hair, bristle”; Ltv.trums ‘swelling, blister, ulcer”, (if for *trud-mo-, compare:) Lat. strūma f. “geschwollene glands, craw “ (*streud-stroud-, strūd-mü); after Vasmer 3, 145 in addition Lith. traũšti “ crumb, spall, crumble “, Ltv. trausls “frail, breakable”, trust “faulen, modern”; O.Ice. strūtr “cusp, peak”, Dan. strude, strutte “ stiff stand, widerstreben”, Swe. strutta ‘stolpernd go”, O.E. strūtian “ stiff stand”, nd. strutt “ stiff “, Ger. strotz ds., M.H.G. Ger. strotzen, M.H.G. striuzen ‘sträuben, spreizen”, strūz “Widerstand”, fight”, Ger. Strauß ds. = M.Eng. strūt “das Schwellen, fight”; M.H.G. strūzach ‘shrubbery, bush”, gestriuze “Buschwerk”, Ger. (Blumen-)Strauß; here also O.S. strota “tuba, guttur”, M.L.G. strote, strotte f., M.H.G. strozze “throat, windpipe “, O.Fris. strot-bolla ds.; without anl. s-: O.E. ðrotu , ðrote, Eng. throat, throttle “throat, windpipe “, O.E. ðrot-bolla “ windpipe “, (Eng. thropple), O.H.G. drozza “throat, windpipe “, Ger. Drossel with the derivative erdrosseln, M.H.G. drũzzel “throat” and ‘snout”, O.Ice. Þrūtr ‘snout”; O.Ice. Þrūtinn ‘swollen”, Þrūtna “to swell, also vor pride, hauteur”, Þroti “ intumescence “, O.E. ðrūtian “vor pride, hauteur or rage, fury schwellen”; dieselben meaning “to swell, fight” also in M.Ir. trot, Ir. troid “fight” (*truzdü?), Welsh trythu “to swell”, trythyll “ lustful “; 3. With Labial extensions: Gk. στρῡφνός “herb (from taste); grumpy, surly, sullen; tight, firm, stiff “; O.S. strūf ‘struppig, rough”, strūvian ‘sträuben”, M.H.G. strup (-b-), strūbe ‘struppig”, O.H.G. strūbēn, M.H.G. strūben, *striuben “ stare “, Ger. sträuben , M.H.G. strobel ‘struppig”, aGmc. Strubiloscalleo ‘strubbelkopf”; M.H.G. Struppe (Gmc. -bb-), Ger. Gestrũpp, nl. strobbe ‘stump, shrub, bush”, strobbelen ‘straucheln”, Swe. strubbla ds.; with Gmc. -p- (IE -b-): Nor. strøypa “ clamp “, Ger. Swiss stru(m)pfen, M.L.G. strumpen “pull together”, struppe ‘stump”; O.Ice. str(j)ūpi “throat, gullet “, Nor. strop “narrow aperture “; Lith. strùbas, Ltv. stru(m)ps ‘short abgestutzt”, strubikis, strupikis, strupastis ‘stumpfschwanz”, Ltv. strupulis “kurzer thick person; Stũck wood, clot, chunk”, O.Lith. strupas “abgelebter man”.
    References: WP. II 627 ff., WH. II 595, 601 f., 606 f., 692, Trautmann 284 f., 325, Vasmer 3, 98 f., 126.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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